The principal mission of the Civil Affairs Association is, and has been for over 60 years, to help ensure the maintenance and enhancement of the Civil Affairs capabilities required by the Armed Forces of our Nation in war and peace. The objectives for the Association therefore include the following:
We encourage professional dialog and the exchange of ideas on all aspects of Civil Affairs among and between our members, the military branches, and interested civilian organizations.
We encourage research and publications which advance Civil Affairs thought and scholarship. We encourage activities which create and maintain esprit and camaraderie in the Civil Affairs community through the U.S. Army Civil Affairs Corps, its members, and its activities.
We support a strong U.S. Civil Affairs military force, and believe that the activities of this force promote and help build international peace.
These objectives have been achieved, time and again, by continuing and diligent attention to:
maintenance of an adequate Civil Affairs force structure in the active and reserve components designed to ensure the immediate availability of trained and capable Civil Affairs soldiers and units, whenever and wherever required;
development of Civil Affairs doctrine and training programs;
understanding Civil Affairs responsibilities (and the capabilities of Civil Affairs soldiers and units) by conventional force commanders at all levels;
and recognition and enhancement of the esprit de corps of Civil Affairs soldiers and units.
Slide 4 – Organization and Directors.
The Association also has a National Board of Honorary Members. It is composed of distinguished Americans who support the goals of the Association and have served the Nation in important Civil Affairs and national security assignments. Past members have included Generals of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower and Douglas A. MacArthur, Honorable John J. McCloy, Honorable Robert Murphy, General Mark W. Clark, General Lucius D. Clay, General Richard G. Stilwell, Lieutenant General William R. Peers and Colonel William R. Swarm. Here is the current board of directors, including current officers and directors, living past presidents, and directors emeritus.
Slide 5 – The U.S. Army Civil Affairs Corps.
The U. S. Army Civil Affairs Corps was established as the U.S.
Army Reserve Civil Affairs Corps by Department of the Army General Order 22 in June 1989. Following the establishment of the Civil Affairs Branch in the Army Active Component, the name of the Corps was changed to the U. S. Army Civil Affairs Corps. The Civil Affairs Corps is authorized by Army Regulation 600-82, The U. S. Army Regimental System.
The Association provides the financial and administrative support required by the U. S. Army Reserve Civil Affairs Corps. It also provides financial and administrative support to a variety of other programs that do not receive Government funding.
The Civil Affairs Corps and the Civil Affairs Association have joined in a number of projects to enhance the esprit of Civil Affairs soldiers and units. They have supported the Marquat Library at Fort Bragg by purchasing books which supplement the Library’s budget. The outstanding graduates in Civil Affairs classes at Fort Bragg have been recognized with Civil Affairs coins and a complementary membership in the Association. The two organizations have sponsored summer interns to work for the historians at Fort Bragg to organize and catalog Civil Affairs archives at the post.
Slide 6 – Recognition and Awards.
The Civil Affairs Corps recognizes its distinguished members with a Distinguished Member of the Corps Certificate and the Civil Affairs Corps Esprit Medallion. Others who are not members of the Corps, but make noteworthy contributions to Civil Affairs, are awarded the Honorary Member of the Corps Certificate and the Medallion. In cooperation with the Civil Affairs Association the Corps has selected from Civil Affairs unit nominations a Junior Officer of the Year, NCO of the Year, and a Civil Affairs Soldier of the Year.
During each Annual Conference, the Association also presents its Eli E. Nobleman Annual Award, the Ralph R. Temple Award, and the John H. Hilldring Award to those individuals whom the Board of Directors have determined to have made extraordinary contributions in the field of Civil Affairs and to the objectives of the Association. The Colonel Ralph R. Temple Award is named for a World War II veteran and early Chairman of the Association’s Executive Committee. This award is for outstanding service in the furtherance of the Association’s objectives. The John H. Hilldring Award, named for the Association’s founder and World War II Chief of the Army’s Civil Affairs Division, is awarded to persons for outstanding Civil Affairs military service.
Slide 7 – CAA Beginnings.
The Civil Affairs Association, originally the Military Government Association, was conceived and organized by a small group of individuals with World War II combat and postcombat experience. Meeting in Washington, DC in February 1947, they intended to establish an organization which would preserve the Civil Affairs expertise developed during World War II, improve Civil Affairs training and doctrine and ensure the availability of trained Civil Affairs soldiers and units for all future contingencies.
Shortly after the first meeting, the Association was incorporated in the District of Columbia as a nonprofit organization. The first officers and directors were received by President Harry S. Truman in the Oval Office, on 2 April 1947, in a special ceremony honoring the achievements and objectives of Civil Affairs. The CAA is now recognized by the IRS as a code section 501(c)19 veterans organization.
The first President of the Association was Major General John H. Hilldring, a soldier-statesman, who was the War Department G-
1. He had urged the Secretary of War to establish the Civil Affairs Division in order to centralize all Civil Affairs matters which were scattered throughout the Department. General Hilldring organized the Division and served as its Chief from 1943 to 1946, reporting directly to the Secretary, until he retired to become Assistant Secretary of State for Occupied Areas.
The Board of Directors held its first meeting on 18 April 1947. They adopted By-Laws, appointed committees, and made plans for the publication of a Journal and a Newsletter at regular intervals. These two publications were eventually combined. The Civil Affairs Journal and Newsletter dates from the beginning days of the Association. It carries news of people, places, and events of interest to Civil Affairs soldiers. It also carries articles with scholarly discussion of Civil Affairs issues.
Other major Association publications include a Bicentennial Report reviewing 200 years of Civil Affairs history and activities published in June 1976 and the Proceedings of a Symposium on Civil Affairs in the Persian Gulf War, published in 1992. The symposium was conducted at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, 25-27 October 1991. It examined in detail the contributions of Civil Affairs soldiers and units in the Persian Gulf War with a view to considering ways to improve the delivery of Civil Affairs support in the future.
Over the past decade, the Association produced a series of position or issue papers on Civil Affairs with respect to its capabilities, doctrine, training, and future during the War on Terror.
The Civil Affairs Association has held its Annual Conferences in major cities throughout the United States, beginning with Washington, D.C., in 1948. The conferences are forums for Civil Affairs professionals that include discussions, presentations, well-informed speakers and senior Defense Department officials. Principal speakers have included Chairmen of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Army Chiefs of Staff, Commanders-in-Chief of the Special Operations Command and other distinguished
military and civilian leaders.
For a period beginning with 1995, the Annual Conferences were conducted simultaneously with the Worldwide Civil Affairs Conferences sponsored by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low Intensity Conflict. These were then replaced with Civil Affairs Roundtables to discuss topical issues of importance to Civil Affairs and the widening community with which it works.
The founders’ greatest concerns were then, and remain to this day:
lack of understanding on the part of the vast majority of members of the Armed Forces, of all ranks, about the strategic importance of the Civil Affairs mission and the capabilities of Civil Affairs soldiers and units, and
the need for the Nation to develop and train such a force to be ready and available for rapiddeployment when needed.
Slide 8 – CAA 20th Century Achievements.
Over the years, many attempts have been made to:
eliminate the Civil Affairs Branch;
eliminate all Civil Affairs units from the force structure;
reduce drastically the number of units and the number of drills;
change drastically the organization and structure of units (TOE);
reduce the number of senior Civil Affairs officers in units by altering the grade structure;
utilize Reserve Component Civil Affairs spaces and funds for other Active and Reserve activities. In
the face of such challenges in the 20th century, the Association helped accomplish:
establishment of a Civil Affairs Branch in the Army Reserve;
establishment of a Civil Affairs career program in the Active and Reserve Components;
establishment of a U.S. Army Civil Affairs training at the U.S. Army JFK Special Warfare School and Center at Ft. Bragg, NC;
retention and growth of Army Reserve Civil Affairs units in the force structure of the selective Reserve as well as Active Component;
development and adoption of a distinctive insignia for the Civil Affairs Branch;
establishment of the U.S. Army Reserve Civil Affairs Corps (which is affiliated as part of the U.S. Army Regimental System) and a distinctive coat of arms and insignia;
enhanced recognition and understanding of the Civil Affairs role and missions at all echelons through Congressional hearings and publication of periodic position papers by the Board of Directors that provide, in addition to information about Civil Affairs and the capabilities of Civil Affairs soldiers and units, also address current issues relating to Civil Affairs;
development of Civil Affairs and civil-military operations at Army/Marine and Joint levels and inclusion in other major doctrines and training programs;
inclusion of Civil Affairs units and personnel in Defense and Army joint exercises and war games; and
recognition by the Internal Revenue Service that the Association qualifies, under theIRS Code, as a 501(c)(19) (“Veterans”) organization and is able to accept tax deductible donations for its purposes.
It must be emphasized that these important accomplishments have not been achieved without constant vigilance, much stress and much hard work.
Slide 9 – A Broad Historical Perspective.
As long as wars have been fought in and among civilian populations, as long as soldiers have come into contact with civilians in the course of military operations, civil-military operations have existed. As far back as Caesar’s Gallic Wars, for example, the
political and military were intertwined and military government became institutional. Similar situations appeared in ancient Persia, India, and China. Many aspects of the codes of chivalry in Europe and bushido in Japan during the Middle Ages were rule-sets on how warriors were to interact with civilians, both politically and socially.
As war became deadlier and more complex on a mass scale, organizations like the International Committee of the Red Cross were founded in the mid-19th century, first to deal with wounded warriors and then the consequences – intended as well as unintended – on civilian populations. International norms on military intervention, including military government and humanitarian responsibilities military commanders had toward populations in occupied territories, became codified in the Hague Conventions of 1908 and the Geneva Conventions of 1949. World War I was the last major war with the majority of
casualties being military; World War II was the first and greatest major conflict in which the majority of those who suffered were civilian. Since then, most of the victims of almost every conflict, large and small, have been civilians.
As a result of World War II, the United Nations and many international organizations, especially nongovernmental,
began to proliferate in number and in capability, especially after the Cold War. At the same time, military concepts and capabilities for civil-military coordination grew, as military forces began to see more frequent use in peace operations or “operations other than war.” NATO’s concept for civil-military cooperation, or CIMIC, for example, was developed and fielded first in the mid-1990s, with the deployment of NATO forces to replace UN forces in the Balkans. The UN, in turn, began to develop its frameworks for civil-military coordination as a result of the “Brahimi Report” on peacekeeping reform in the early 2000’s.
In the wake of the terrorists attacks of 2001, it had become clear that “security” had gone well beyond physical protection of populations. Conversely, the security implications of humanitarian action and development became more readily apparent and consequential, as articulated by the concept of “human security” and the development of population-centric counterinsurgency and stability operations doctrines during the Global War on Terror. If anything, the need for coordination among this ever-growing group of disparate players and organizations has increased, not decreased.
All this time the impetus and demand increased for more comprehensive, collaborative, and coordinated approaches in international interventions – especially between those mostly in the security business and those mostly in the humanitarian and development business. Civil-military coordination – or civil-military operations – is now something integral to the operations of either military or civilian actors dealing with conflict.
Slide 10 – CA First Century.
Long before any of these concepts came into being, the U.S. Army had its own experiences in civil-military operations, stretching all the way back to the War of Independence, through General Winfield Scott’s issuance of General Order No. 20. Civil Affairs has been applied, albeit not always in their currently recognizable form, starting with the first use of "military government” during the Mexican War, through Reconstruction after the Civil War, the Philippine
Insurrection and other small wars in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Slide 11 – CA Second Century.
During the last century, CMO and CA came into their own with the deployment of provisional Civil Affairs/Military Government units to occupied portions of the Rhineland after World War I, and of course the occupation of Germany and Japan after World War II. Since the 1950s, from Korea through the “hearts and minds” campaigns in Vietnam and particularly during the peace operations of the 1990s, CMO and CA have matured in accelerating fashion.
A Bell for Adano by John Hersey, set in World War II Italy, is still considered the seminal work on Civil Affairs. The other is the Army Center of Military History’s 900-page seminal study Civil Affairs: Soldiers Become Governors, which can be accessed at:
Slide 12 – CA Growth Since the Cold War.
Since especially the end of the Cold War, Civil Affairs has developed into a significant Joint as well as Army capability, as the Marines, Navy, and Air Force grew capacities to conduct “operations other than war,” in parallel to the development of U.S. interagency, NATO and UN civil-military cooperation and coordination – or “CIMIC” – capabilities, as well as that of international and non-governmental organizations. This has transitioned Civil Affairs over time from more of a facilitator of stability and peace operations to a provider of essential movement services under the old military government model, the former much more complex than the latter.
Shortly after the establishment of the U.S. Special Operations Command in 1989, the Army formed the U.S. Army Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations Command (which later received its “Airborne designation). As Army General Carl W. Stiner reported to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff not long after USACAPOC’s establishment:
“Although PSYOP and CA forces have been assigned to the U.S. Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) since its inception in 1987, they were not designated as SOF. This made resourcing, programming, and structuring forces a difficult and confusing task. On 30 April 1992, USCINCSOC requested that Psychological Operations and Civil Affairs forces be designated as Special Operations Forces.
On 3 March 1993, the Secretary of Defense approved the request and in a memorandum, designated them as SOF. In accordance with Title 10, United States Code, Section 167, this designation clarified the legal basis as well as the command authority under which these forces are organized. This formal designation of PSYOP and CA affords USCINCSOC complete authority to organize, train, equip, and manage these forces without the legal ambiguities and institutional misunderstandings that existed in the past. The designation of PSYOP and CA forces as SOF was a major milestone and will enhance the ability of SOCOM to utilize their unique capabilities at home and abroad.”
Since that time, Army Civil Affairs in particular has been understood as a Special Operations capability.However, the integration of Civil Affairs with the General Purpose Force remained a challenge.
In the midst of the Global War on Terror, following a “Snowflake” memorandum from the Secretary of Defense in 2004, Army CA was first “bifurcated” under a Secretary of Defense directive, with the Active portion remaining under Special Operations force management and the Reserve portion going under Army Forces Command. In truth, the force is trifurcated among Active Component Special Operations Forces, Active Component General Purpose Forces, and U.S. Army Reserve General Purpose Forces.
Further, the force is split not just along AC/RC lines, but along conventional/SOF lines as well. This is a crucial issue, because although the force is 90% conventional, the proponent is SOF. Finally, the force is split between tactical (AC) and trategic/operational (USAR). In other words, all of the strategic and most of the operational capability is in the Reserve Component General Purpose CA force.
This added complication has presented both a challenge and an opportunity. The challenges lie in maintaining as many of the advantages explained by Gen. Stiner above – in force management, maintaining relative unity in doctrine and operational approaches, and of course keeping the Active and Reserve components and conventional forces and SOF connected. But this split also presents opportunities to re-balance and reinvigorate the Army Civil Affairs force to maximize longstanding values-added. Progress, for example, has been made in making sure wellqualified Civil Affairs planners are on-station at both regional combatant and functional commands to ensure early CA input to theater campaign planning and other processes. Revisions, however, in funding mechanisms and programming authorities would go far in enabling the Active Component in both General Purpose and SOF to leverage the Reserve Component for these strategic missions.
All the while, the size and relevance of the force has grown. Although the Cold War focus of civilmilitary operations and Civil Affairs was on “minimizing civilian interference in military operations”, especially since Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom, commanders are better understanding the value of CA to help them to visualize and shape the civilian component of the integrated operational environment. During combat, CA has gone well beyond minimizing civilian interference. The military’s
prime instrument to coordinate with local, U.S., and international civilians, CA facilitates humanitarian relief, civil order, and the resumption of public services and normal daily life as fighting subsides. As emphasis shifts from relief to reconstruction, CA has brokered the growth of governance and helps turn responsibilities over to civilian relief and reconstruction agencies and, ultimately, local public administrators, enabling fulfillment of the political-military end state.
While CA generalists at the tactical and operational levels are in direct support of forces, CA functional specialists, especially in commands and brigades, have been increasingly in general support of interagency stability and reconstruction operations, largely at operational and strategic levels. The evolution of Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs) in Iraq and Afghanistan and Ministry Support Teams in Iraq has illustrated much of this evolution in CA employment concepts.
America’s capability to conduct this increasingly vital mission is around 10,000 CA soldiers in the Army and Marines (the Navy recently disbanded its Civil Affairs). About 80% are in the Reserve Component – itself in a dynamic state of transformation – mainly because they are best suited for intense interaction with civilians and because of civilian knowledge and skills they have or can access and cannot be duplicated in the AC without great expense. Less than one half of one percent of the U.S. force
structure is thus dedicated to leveraging non-military power and winning the peace – and the budget share is even smaller.
Slide 13 – CA Enduring Strategic Value.
Now more joint, interagency, and multinational in application, Civil Affairs has come a long way since the days of the “Monuments Men.” But it remains an enduring and proven national strategic capability indispensible to the U.S. national interests and national and international security across the full spectrum of peace and stability operations activities.
Civil Affairs is the only part of the Joint Force to facilitate civil-military operations and dedicated primarily to peace and stability operations – “a core U.S. military mission that the Department of Defense shall be prepared to conduct with proficiency,” according to DoD Directive 3000.05. Outside small elements of the State Department and the U.S. Agency for International Development, CA is the major capability the Nation has to transition to peace” and bring together whole-of-nation elements to
help mitigate conflict in the first place – that is, to end and prevent wars. The most expedient and costeffective means to execute U.S. political-military strategy and secure peace and stability on the ground, it is the ultimate 21st century “economy of force” capability – the low-tech solution to the lowtech problem of engaging and collaborating with partners from all walks of life to prevent or mitigate large-scale deployments of general purpose forces for low or high intensity combat operations – a
unique strategic economy-of-force capability that spares blood and treasure. In that regard, Civil Affairs is an essential instrument of America’s “strategic landpower.”
While capabilities have grown among other services, the bulk of CA still comes from the Army – land power remaining most suited to integrate all elements of national power, especially before and after the outbreak of violent conflict. Only the Army has strategic, operational, and tactical CA capability with its CA commands and brigades as well as its battalions. Army CA has been doing this for generations, though its mission has evolved considerably.
This operationally experienced and savvy force presents a unique historic opportunity to maintain this capability at relatively low cost not only for contingencies, but for steady-state engagement activities, including Special Operations “persistent engagement” missions, that can help the Army fulfill its strategic role of “Prevent” and “Shape” as well as “Win” – if, of course, properly managed, organized, maintained, educated, trained, authorized, and resourced.
Reserve CA in particular represents the longstanding national strength of the citizen-soldier. Reserve Civil Affairs, beyond bringing specific civilian skills – and a civilian mentality – that is extremely difficult and costly to maintain in the Active Component, also bring the ability to access as well as influence whole-of-society actors and activities that are center-of-mass of Phase 0 (Shape and Influence) as well as transition from conflict to peace (Phase 4 and 5) – otherwise known in broader
(civilian) terms as conflict prevention , conflict transformation, and peacebuilding, respectively. Their “whole-of-society” equities are even more applicable to emerging security cooperation and security assistance operations coming mainly out of the General Purpose Forces as well as to SpecialOperations “persistent engagement” missions.
No doubt, a rebalancing and overhaul of CA along “DOTMLPF” (doctrine, organization, training, material, leadership, and education) lines is in the offing. But any reconfiguration of Civil Affairs forces writ large must capitalize on the tremendous operational experience it has earned over the last dozen years and its enduring strategic role and value.
Slide 14 – CA Role in Changing U.S. Security Engagement.
Perhaps nothing illustrates how Civil Affairs is at the forefront of changing U.S. foreign and national security engagement than this picture showing Brig. Gen. Hugh Van Roosen receiving an on-site briefing by a Chinese commander with the United Nations Mission in Liberia during his year-long tour of duty in 2013. Van Roosen, a Reserve Component U.S. Army Civil Affairs Officer, was the first U.S. general officer to serve with a United Nations field mission since the mid-1990s. He was the UNMIL Force Chief-of-Staff and has since served additional tours as an advisor to the UN Office of Military Affairs.
Dozens of other Civil Affairs officers from the Reserves have gained experience in engaging multilaterally through tours of duty with the U.S. Military Observer Group. To meet a growing demand signal, Civil Affairs commands and brigades, especially in Africa, play an important role in building partnership capacity missions to train UN and Africa Union troop contributing country forces in civilmilitary coordination, while themselves vastly improving their strategic and operational values-added as a premier Joint Force capability in such important security cooperation roles.
Slide 15 – CA Doctrinal Overview.
Civil Affairs operations fall within civil-military operations as described in Joint Civil-Military Operations doctrine under Joint Publication 3-57, as the diagram on the upper left shows. Army Doctrine, under Field Manual FM 3-57, lays out how both Active and Reserve Civil Affairs perform their missions.
The way CA operations are conducted is by using the five logical lines of operations as depicted in the “pillars” of the Civil Affairs mission, in coordination with U.S. Government agencies, intergovernmental organizations such as the UN, NGOs and civil society organizations, and of course the host nation.
The primary mission of Civil Affairs is to conduct Civil Affairs Operations in support of the more universal Joint Force mission of civil-military operations. Civil Affairs Soldiers are responsible for executing five core CA tasks represented in the five logical lines of operations. These include Civil Information Management, Foreign Humanitarian Assistance, Nation Assistance, Population Resource Control and Support to Civil Administration. Some sub tasks to these core tasks include identifying nongovernmental and international organizations operating in the battlespace, handling refugees, civilians on the battlefield, and determining protected targets such as schools, churches/temples/mosques, hospitals, etc.
Civil Affairs units are the field commander’s link to the civil authorities in that commander’s area of operations. The Soldiers make up teams which interface and provide expertise to the host nation government. USACAPOC(A)’s civil affairs Soldiers are particularly suited for this mission since they are Army Reserve Soldiers with civilian occupations such as law enforcement, engineering, medicine, law, banking, public administration, etc.
Civil Affairs Soldiers have been integral to U.S. peacekeeping operations in Iraq, Afghanistan, the Horn of Africa, Bosnia and Kosovo, among others. Tactical Civil Affairs teams go out and meet with local officials, conduct assessments and determine the need for critical infrastructure projects such as roads, schools, power plants, clinics, sewer lines, etc., and check up on the status of the project after construction by a local company has begun.
Under the lines of operations are the entities within the CA force structure which execute activities which support the logical lines of operations. Among these are Civil Affairs Teams – the base Civil Affairs element, which is broken out here. An important coordination tool remains the Civil-Military Operations Center, or CMOC, as well as Civil Liaison Teams, and Civil Affairs Plans Teams, found at the brigade and command levels. At the operational and strategic levels are the CA Functional
Specialists Cells comprised of the capabilities broken out at the bottom of the chart.
Slide 16 – Army CA Force Structure Balance.
The bulk of CA is in the Army – 28% in the Active Component and 70% in the Reserves. Although the pie graph shows 2% of CA capacity in the Army National Guard, there is no actual “force structure” resident in the Guard, just a small percentage of
There are two active-component brigades – the 95th, which support Army Special Operations, and the 85th, which performs general purpose CA missions. Otherwise, the rest of Army Civil Affairs is in the United States Army Civil Affairs and Psychological
Operations Command (Airborne). USACAPOC(A) was founded in 1985. USACAPOC(A) and is composed mostly of U.S. Army Reserve Soldiers in units throughout the United States. Its total size is approximately 10,000 Soldiers, making up about 88 percent of the DoD’s Civil Affairs forces and 70 percent of the DoD’s Psychological Operations forces. It is headquartered at Fort Bragg, NC.
Historically, USACAPOC(A) was one of four major subordinate commands comprising the U.S. Army Special Operations Command. In May 2006, the reserve component of USACAPOC(A) was transferred to the U.S. Army Reserve Command. The Army’s active duty Special Operations Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations units, along with the Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations Force Modernization/Branch Proponents, continue to fall under the U.S. Army Special Operations Command and its subordinate United States Army John F. Kennedy Special Warfare Center and School respectively. The new Institute for Military Support to Governance, which looks at larger issues of CA mission and force structure issues such as strategic capabilities like functional specialties, is nested in the School.
The active component 95th Civil Affairs Brigade falls under United States Army Forces Command (FORSCOM).
Slide 17 – Army CA Active Force Structure.
This slide shows us the two Active Component CA brigades and their alignment to Army Forces Command and the U.S. Army Special Operations Command (USASOC), respectively.
On the left side of the slide, the 85th CA Brigade is the coordinating headquaters in support of all Geographic Combatant Commands, where the battalions are regionally aligned in support of each Army Service Component Command, or ASCC. The Global Response Force requirement for contingency operations rotates between the battalions.
On the right side of the slide, the 95th CA Bde is regionally aligned to Theater Special Operations Commands, in addition to SOF CA support to Combined Joint Special Operations Task Force-Afghanistan (which is drawing down), Combined Joint Special Operations Task Force-Arabian Peninsula, Joint Special Operations Task Force ‐ Philippines, Special Operations Task Force – Trans Sahara, and Joint Special Operations Command.
The primary force structure difference between the two brigades is that the 95th maintains six companies per battalion whereas the 85th maintains five companies per battalion.
Slide 18 – Army CA Reserve Force Structure.
The rest of Army Civil Affairs is in the United States Army Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations Command (Airborne). USACAPOC(A) was founded in 1985 and is composed mostly of U.S. Army Reserve Soldiers in units throughout the United States. Its total size is approximately 10,000 Soldiers, making up about 88 percent of the DoD’s Civil Affairs forces and 70
percent of the DoD’s Psychological Operations forces. It is headquartered at Ft. Bragg.
All of the Nation’s strategic and operational Civil Affairs capability is in the Army, while about 90% of that is in USACAPOC(A). Army Reserve Component (RC) Civil Affairs make up about 5% of the U.S. Army Reserve force, but have accounted for about 20% of Army Reserve deployments.
The Command’s soldiers bring civilian expertise not found among regular active duty Soldiers. The projects they coordinate comprise many of the “good news” stories that have run in the American media about how the military has helped the populations in Iraq, Afghanistan, and the Horn of Africa.
This operationally experienced and savvy force presents a unique historic opportunity to maintain this capability at relatively low cost not only for contingencies, but for steady-state engagement activities, including Special Operations “persistent engagement” missions, that can help the Army fulfill its strategic role of “Prevent” and “Shape” as well as “Win” and thus prevent or mitigate large -scale deployments of general purpose forces for low or high intensity combat operations – a unique
strategic economy-of-force capability that spares the Nation its blood and treasure – if, of course, properly managed, organized, maintained, educated, trained, authorized, and resourced.
The Reserve CA force structure consists of USACAPOC(A) with four subordinate CA Commands (“CACOMs”). Each CACOM is doctrinally aligned to support each Geographic Combatant Command – the 350th CACOM, in Pensicola, FL, supports SOUTHCOM; the 351st CACOM, in Mountain View, CA, supports Pacific Command; the 352nd CACOM, at Ft. Meade, MD, supports CENTCOM; and the 353rd CACOM, in Staten Island, NY, supports both EUCOM and AFRICOM. Each CACOM maintains two brigades with the exception of the 350th CACOM.
It’s also important to note that there are two separate CA brigades aligned to U.S. Army, Europe (in Germany) and U.S. Army, Pacific (in Hawaii).
Changes are coming to the Army Civil Affairs structure – they are currently being debated and discussed among various commands, including USACAPOC itself, the Army Reserve Command, Army Special Operations, and the Department of the Army. No doubt USACAPOC will evolve into another structure, but it remains to be seen what that structure will look like and where it will fit in within the Army and Special Operations command structures.
Slide 19 – USMC CA.
U.S. Marine Corps’ Civil Affairs is all about supporting the Marine Air-Ground Task Force, or MAGTF, which is the primary deployable combined arms unit of maneuver for the Marines.
Their mission is stated here. Marine CA is primarily tactical in application, and most of it in the Reserves, especially as the Marines revert back to their traditional littoral security and stability mission.
Slide 20 – Marine Corps CA Locations.
These are the current locations of Marine Civil Affairs Groups: I MEF: Camp Pendleton, CA; II MEF: Camp Lejeune, NC; III MEF Okinawa, Japan; 1st CAG: Camp Pendleton, CA; 2nd CAG: Washington DC; 3rd CAG: Great Lakes, IL; and, 4th CAG: Hialeah, FL.
Slide 21 – Marine Corps CAG.
A typical Marine Civil Affairs Group (CAG) is commanded by a colonel. This chart shows the normal peacetime organizational structure of a CAG, based on the Oct 2013 Table of Organization and Equipment. As you can see, the CAG is authorized 179 personnel. It has a Staff and HQ element, a public health element, and four identical CA Detachments, each with three Civil
Affairs Teams. While this organization is considered adequate for peacetime missions, in combat it has shown to be lacking in the number of personnel assigned, vehicles and crew-served weapons.
Consequently, units operating in OIF and OEF have been task-organized to accommodate additional personnel, weapons and equipment needed to operate in a high-threat environment. FHG CG has started movement to increase the size of each team by 2 to 7 total (2 more enlisted billets).
The functional cell consists of CA Marines and Sailors with the following backgrounds:
0111: Admin Clerk
0202: Intelligence Officer
0231: Intel Chief
3402: Financial Management Officer
3432: Financial Management Chief
0402: Logistics Officer
0431: Logistics Chief
2300: Industrial Hygiene Officer (USN)
8432: Preventative Medical Technician (USN)
4402: Staff Judge Advocate (Lawyer)
Slide 22 – M-CAST POM.
Given fiscal pressures, the Navy has programmed the entire elimination of its Maritime Civil Affairs and Security Force Assistance Teams (MCAST) under Program Objective Memorandum. This is a huge loss, given the Navy’s storied tradition in Civil Affairs, including that of Frank Stokes, who led the “Monuments Men” of World War II.
Prior to its elimination, MCAST provided effective, flexible, and responsive teams of U.S. Navy Sailors to Joint Task Force Commanders to establish and enhance relations between military forces, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and the civilian populace – a significant part of the“Global Force for Good.”
This sudden decision has seriously impacted the Navy’s ability to execute this three-fold worldwide mission. Beyond this, elimination of MCAST is a grave strategic error, reflecting a lack of understanding of the global reach and second and third order effects this small force provides. The Global Fleet Stations touch thousands of civilians in countries of risk, and MCAST has been vital to many other Navy humanitarian and Security Assistance missions worldwide, to include the Haiti
earthquake and tsunami relief actions.
In another example, in support of the Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa, MCAST was the only Civil Affairs force operating continuously in Kenya, credited for creating an entire coastal defense program there. Along the Swahili coast, MCAST has been executing Fisheries Civic Action Projects, bringing fish to market and fostering stability in entire coastal regions.
It remains unclear how exactly the gap left by the elimination of MCAST is being filled. Part of their missions is going to Marine and Army Civil Affairs, whereas the non-Civil Affairs specialists in the Navy are assuming other missions. Some missions are simply left unfulfilled.
Slide 23 – M-CAST.
To support the Maritime Strategy and the Navy’s core competencies of Humanitarian Assistance/Disaster Relief and Maritime Security, MCAST Command fostered and sustained cooperative relationships across the Joint, Coalition and Multinational spectrum to provide regional stability, prevent conflict and protect U.S. interests. It maintained partnerships with: U.S. Embassy Military Groups; Host Nation agencies and militaries; the Host Nation HN civil populace; and other partner militaries (e.g. French forces in Djibouti, other navies, etc.).
The Maritime Civil Affairs and Security Training (MCAST) Command manned, trained, equipped and deployed Sailors to facilitate and enable a Navy Component or Joint Task Force Command to establish and enhance relations between military forces, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and the civilian populace. Accomplished in a collaborative manner across the spectrum of operations in the maritime environment, MCAST Command executed civilian to military operations and military to military training, as directed, in support of security cooperation and security assistance requirements.
MCAST capabilities included: Maritime Civil Affairs Teams of about five each; Maritime Civil Affairs Planners; Functional Specialists; Civil Military Operations Centers; and Civil Information Management. Maritime Civil Affairs Functional Specialties were: Port Operations; Harbor & Channel Maintenance/Construction; and, Marine & Fisheries Resources and Management.
The first Maritime Civil Affairs mission was in 2007 – 1 MCA Planner supported the SeaBees mission in Brazzaville, Congo. Since then, MCAST deployed MCA Teams (MCATs – 5 PAX), MCA Planners, Functional Specialists, and CMOCs in support of three types of missions – Enduring (6 month deployments, i.e., CJTF-HOA, JSOTF-P, JTF-B, Iraq, Afghanistan, SOCAF), all Global Fleet
Stations (normally 4-6 month deployments with a MCAST + MCA Planner), and HA/DR (Haiti, Chile, Superstorm Sandy) with scale-able forces from MCATs to Planners to CMOC. Functiona Specialists are deployed to support all of these missions in the expertise areas of: Port Operations, Fisheries and Marine Resources, Harbor and Channel Construction and Maintenance,
Admiralty Law (of the Sea), Economic Development.
MCAST teams typically supported three different types of missions: 1. Enduring/Expeditionary missions, i.e., Combine Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa; Joint Special Operations Task Force – Philippines; OEF to Caribbean Central America ISO SOCSOUTH; MCA Planners ISO Naval Special Warfare in Iraq; 2. Global Fleet Stations were unique to the U.S. Navy Maritime Civil Affairs
provided by four continuous ‘afloat’ missions – Africa Partnership Stations; Continuing Promise; Southern Partnership Station; Pacific Partnership (Schemes of Maneuver are indicated in purple lines on map), i.e., establish CMOCs; execute assessments, i.e., ports, harbors, fishing village, etc.; enhancing Maritime Security by connecting Partner National authorities and populace to
counter illicit activities and execute the Whole-of-Government approach ISO security and stabilityand 3. HA/DR.
MCAST was also directly involved in the following HA/DR operations: Hurricane Sandy (Dec ‘12); Operation UNIFED RESPONSE (Haiti Earthquake Jan ’10); Airline Crash – Comoros (Jul ’09); Haiti Hurricane (Oct ’08).
Slide 24 – USAF CMO.
Although not a formal branch or specialty, there are nonetheless thousands of personnel in the U.S. Air Force who have performed civil-military operations missions and scores of officers who are actually Civil Affairs qualified.
The Air Force’s involvement in civil-military operations goes back further than we may think. From June 1948 to May 1949, the citizens of Berlin had a waning supply of food and coal when their citywas blockaded by the Soviets. The Western Allies came to the rescue with Operation Vittles, deliveringfood, coal and other critical supplies. The U.S. Air Force alone airdropped 1.8 million tons of supplies during nearly 300,000 flights over Berlin, flying an astounding 92 million miles. It is still the largest
airborne humanitarian assistance mission to date.
Air Force personnel still conduct humanitarian assistance and military civic action around the world. During the Haiti earthquake crisis in 2010, at the request of the Haitian government, the Air Force helped quickly re-establish air traffic control, airfield management operations, and voice and data communication links in order to restore this critical logistics node for worldwide humanitarian relief. In addition, Air Force personnel have provided emergency medical and rescue capabilities, as well as air liaison officers to enhance response.
Throughout numerous coalition missions, Air Force officers have served on the civilmilitary coordination staff as well as headed Provincial Reconstruction Teams. In places like the Horn of Africa, Air Force personnel have joined Civil Affairs teams on military civic action missions. This also includes employment of Rapid Engineer Deployable Heavy Operational Repair Squadron Engineers – or REDHORSE – teams to improve air logistics infrastructure, as well as related civil engineering to improve host nation ground transport.
Slide 25 – CA Future Outlook.
The future of Civil Affairs is not entirely certain, given the historic drawdown in defense the United States is now facing under extreme budgetary pressures. No doubt there will be a retrenchment of American interests specifically with regard to avoiding large-scale
deployments of forces in protracted land conflicts, in particular stability and reconstruction operations. As such, Civil Affairs is exposed to impending service cuts and may be reduced to pre-9/11 levels. The U.S. Navy Civil Affairs capability has already been completely eliminated. The next most vulnerable part of Civil Affairs that may undergo substantial cuts is in the Army Reserve Component.
Given the growing – not diminishing – need of the Joint Force to deal with complex peace and security environments and “Phase 0” operations involving security cooperation, conflict prevention, and peacebuilding in coordination with an even greater array of civilian partners to shape and influence the situation, Civil Affairs should survive as a force. However, while it is as tactically and operationally experienced as it has ever been, it cannot simply rest on its body of work during the Global War on
Terror. It must evolve and adapt to these emerging imperatives that will require the force to work more collaboratively, multilaterally, and by, with, and through country teams. Because many of the challenges are even beyond “whole-of-government” and elicit “whole-of-society” capabilities, the Reserve Component in particular has much to offer – if properly organized, educated and trained, and integrated strategically and operationally with Active Component Civil Affairs and interagency partners. The Association has a particularly vital role to play in ensuring policymakers in the executive and
legislative branches – many of whom have no experience with or understanding of Civil Affairs and its mission – understand its enduring strategic value.
Slide 26 – CAA Strategic Initiatives.
The strategic initiatives of the Civil Affairs Association are along these four major lines of activity.
Slide 27 – CAA Advocacy Goals.
To those ends just explained, the Association remains committed to advocating Civil Affairs as a national strategic capability through its major public education, political and institutional outreach, and other strategic communications initiatives. It is also working with its growing list of partners to not only amplify cross-cutting and overlapping strategic themes and messages but help get to most out of resources its members commit to its larger purpose.
The Association is grateful to members who can contribute in any of the ways listed here – especially in using this presentation to reach out to numerous people of influence in the Executive Branches – among them the Department of Defense, Department of the Army, Reserve Affairs and Commands, Special Operations Command, on Capitol Hill, and in the media.
Slide 28 – CAA Major Accomplishments in 2013.
Listed here are some of the major initiatives the Association has supported or sponsored in 2013.
A flagship education and outreach activity are the Civil Affairs Roundtables conducted every spring and fall at George Mason University in coordination with GMU Peace Operations Policy Program, the Reserve Officers Association, and others. These are this year’s topics, bringing the total up to 19 Roundtables so far. A report on the Fall 2013 Roundtable on “Military Support to Peacebuilding” is available through the Association website.
In addition to the Roundtable, the Association and its partners sponsored as discussion of a topic of great strategic interest to the U.S. Special Operations and Central Commands right in their front yard in Tampa, FL, while holding its annual meeting. Given that conflict prevention will be the major activity of steady state U.S. foreign and security assistance engagements for years to come, the Symposium looked at ways the military can play a key enabling and supporting role along political-military, civilmilitary, interagency, public-private, and international lines at regional and country team levels.
This is especially true with regard to Civil Affairs and its ability to leverage not only whole-ofgovernment but whole-of-society capabilities found outside government and among international organizations that are at the front and center of long-term conflict prevention. A powerful keynote presentation by Maj. Gen. (ret.) Geoffrey Lambert and two panels of distinguished subject matter experts discussed what conflict prevention is and how the military and Civil Affairs can once again play a major role in sparing the Nation blood and treasure.
One of the things the Association is doing to improve public and political understanding of the ongoing strategic role of Civil Affairs is to take advantage of the release of The Monuments Men, starring George Clooney, Matt Damon, and Cate Blanchett. A little understood mission of the U.S. military upon entering an area of operations is the preservation of cultural objects within that area – starting in Germany, as the movie depicts, but also in Iraq and other areas.
The Association has assisted the creation and launch of the Center for the Study of Civil-Military Operations at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, whose mission is: ”To develop all West Point leaders so that they are prepared to employ an understanding of Civil-Military Operations (CMO) within the framework of the broad spectrum of challenges they will face in military service; to support transformational changes to professional military education across the Department of Defense and
partnering organizations; and to establish West Point as the wellspring of professional military education in the realm of CMO.”
Members of the Association also reach out to members of Congress and their staff on issues directly or indirectly impacting Civil Affairs, either in direct representation of the Association or through the “Veterans for Smart Power” program run by the U.S. Global Leadership Coalition, one of the Association’s partners.
Slide 29 – CAA Major Initiatives 2014.
Listed here are some of the major initiatives the Association is looking to do in 2014.
Numerous events were planned around the release of the movie “Monuments Men” at the time of and after its release, including local informal CA outings to see and discuss the film as well as additional formal discussions similar to the panel discussion held last fall at the Reserve Officers Association.
This year’s Roundtable and Symposium are focusing on strategic themes such as how to restore and maintain the strategic CA capability through the functional area specialists as well as force redesign and many other ways. The Spring Roundtable, for example, was on “More than Monuments Men: Supporting Governance in the 21st Century.” An issue description of the meeting can be found in an op-ed in the Huffington Post by CAA Director Christopher Holshek, “Beyond the Monuments Men”–
The Fall Roundtable is slated to take place in November and will look at public-private partnering, an area to which especially RC CA can greatly contribute.
This year’s Symposium, taking place on 14 November at the Freedoms House in Valley Forge, PA, will draw on Civil Affairs’ rich history and the input of all participants to discuss “The Future of Civil Affairs.” It looks to contribute to that discussion along Joint and Service lines, including: mission and operations; executive and legal authorities; force design, structure, and management; mix and integration of Active and Reserve Components; recruitment, career management, and education and training; and, interorganizational partnering. The result of these discussions will be an update of the Civil Affairs Issue Papers, with observations and recommendations in all these areas, for publication after the Symposium.
For 2014, the Association is working with the U.S. Army John F. Kennedy Special Warfare School and Center as it stands up its Institute for Military Support to Governance, which looks to identify, train and support qualified CA functional specialists and establish a vast network among U.S. Government agencies, academia, international institutions, and many other partners. Leading much of this dialogue on “strategic Civil Affairs,” the ISMG is headed by the Deputy USACAPOC Commander, who is also the Director of the ISMG, which is part of the USAJFKSWCS at Ft. Bragg. The Association is already providing alumni expertise to ISMG-led discussions, such as at the National Defense University.
Last but certainly not least, the Association is redoubling its efforts to work with the Center for the Study of Civil-Military Operations at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point as well as to reach out to a new generation of legislators in both houses to educate them on the past, present, and especially future strategic importance of Civil Affairs to the Nation.
Slide 30 – CAA Partners.
The Association is looking to expand its “big tent” of formal and informal partnerships in order to leverage resources and networks as well as improve clout with political, economic, and cultural elites on a number of cross-cutting issues of greater strategic importance represented in the events the Association is co-sponsoring or supporting. These are among a few
of the growing list the major partners.
Slide 31 – CAA Member Benefits.
Beyond the advantages to Civil Affairs and the interests of the Association in general are the many benefits individual members derive. The Association is a great way for persons who are or have served in or with Civil Affairs to make sure the value-added of their personal sacrifices and dedication go well beyond their time in service.
Slide 32 – CAA Way Ahead.
For this year and beyond, the Association is looking to re-energize its efforts encapsulated in its longstanding mission of advocacy, especially at this critical time. We are looking to re-connect with Civil Affairs professionals from all Services – including civilians who have worked with Civil Affairs – in order to preserve this vital national strategic capability to foster peace and stability. This is especially true of those with recent deployment experience.
We are also looking to expand our collaborative efforts with like-minded professional associations as well as expand membership, including to international members. Finally, in addition to our traditional centers of concentration at Ft. Bragg and Washington, DC, the Association is striving to hold events and sponsor initiatives in other parts of the country.
We hope you will join us in advancing this critical national cause, in any and all ways you can.
For more information, go to our website or ask an Association member.